IGF 2018 - Day 3 - Salle I - OPEN MIC/TAKING STOCK

The following are the outputs of the real-time captioning taken during the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in Paris, France, from 12 to 14 November 2018. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the event, but should not be treated as an authoritative record. 


     >> SECRETARIAT CHENGETAI MASANGO:   Hello, ladies and gentlemen.  We're about to start the closing session.  Could you please stay your seats?  Could you please take your seats?  Thank you very much.  We'll just wait 30 more seconds. 

     Thank you very much.  Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, with welcome to the closing session of the IGF 2018 annual meeting.  On this podium we have miss Lynn St. Amour chair of the MAG advisory group and to her right we have Mr. Fabrizio Hochschild in the executive office of the United Nations secretary‑general.  On his right we have Ambassador David Martinon, host country co‑chair of the IGF 2018 Multistakeholder Advisory Group and right at the end there we have Mr. Pierre Bonis, co‑chair of the organizing committee.  Thank you. 

     This session is being divided into three parts.  We will first have brief introductory remarks by the chairs and the host country.  And then we will have our traditional open mic session. 

     You can see the microphone is right there.  You can just line up there, and we'll take you alternatively through the rows.  Then after that we'll have the final closing reflections from the community, hosts and the United Nations secretary‑general's representative. 

     Without further ado, I pass the floor onto Lynn St. Amour.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you, Chengetai.  I'd like to thank the IGF community, those participating online and on site for all the efforts here this week and over the last year.  Not only for the thoughtful, excellent sessions of this annual meeting, but for all the work and the intersessional activities supporting four best practice forums, 1 Dynamic Coalitions, the major intercessional policy efforts in the fourth year and, of course, for all of the efforts of the 111 national, regional and youth IGF initiatives. 

Those activities enrich and inform all of our work across the IGF eco‑system and are so very important. 

     There will be many more thanks later, but our work here is not done yet.  After some remarks by the host country, we will turn to the community for the open mic session where we look forward to your reflections on this year's IGF and of course on your thoughts for the work and the year ahead.  We have nearly an hour and a half scheduled for that session, so please, do get your thoughts and comments ready. 

     We have many vehicles for provides feedback, and, of course, the feedback is really essential to our ongoing improvements, specifically I'd like to remind everyone to take a few minutes and respond to the question, what impact can the IGF or the IGF eco‑system have over the next year on the topics we discussed here this week?  We were looking for feedback specific to each session, but feedback by tags or main topics is also very helpful.  Again, the more concrete the suggestion, the better. 

     Please, again, if you can, do be specific about the workshop or the topic.  You can find many links from the home page, which say something like feedback here or feedback form here.  Before welcoming Ambassador Martinon to say a few works, I'd like to thank UNESCO for all the support.  UNESCO is one of our partners in this world summit on the information journey and we appreciate their active engagement. 

     I'd like to acknowledge the secretary‑general was sorry he could not be there due to the overlapping dates with ITU.  It's another important partner, and we look forward to catching up with them soon.  Now to introduce Ambassador David Martinon, the Ambassador for digital affairs from France.  He's, of course, the co‑host for this year's IGF.  As many know, the French government and David personally stepped in to ensure there was a host for this year's IGF when we found ourselves without a host at a very late date. 

     This, of course, followed a similar situation the year before when the government of Switzerland and the U.N. offices in Geneva similarly stepped in to help.  We're very grateful for Switzerland and France's support to the IGF and for such a clear demonstration of your support to multi‑stakeholder processes. 

     We look forward to Berlin next year.  This offered host has been with the U.N. for several years, and we're also very grateful to them for their support. 

     Of course, this means we will be in the European region for three years consecutively.  Not by design, but by necessity.  Through the exceptional efforts of a few governments.  We value diversity in all things in the IGF and in the Internet Governance community and venues.  It's key to broaden engagement with other stakeholders, so I'm asking governments in other regions to please consider hosting an IGF in the future. 

     Chengetai and I are both here at your disposal for any additional information, but seriously, if we really want diversity in our venues and broaden our engagement, we need more support, more offers to host IGF from other parts of the world. 

     With that, Ambassador Martinon, thank you, and the floor is yours. 

     >> DAVID MARTINON:  Thank you very much, Lynn.  I'd like to begin by giving the floor respectfully and in a friendly way to my co‑chair from the organizing committee from the Civil Society, Pierre Bonis. 

     First, I want to thank in addition to you two Lynn St. Amour for her constant support, her tenacity, for her experience, and for her passion for all of the topics that we address, for her commitment to IGF, which gets her out of bed in the morning every day to ensure that IGF is still alive and well and can be compared to other host countries and throughout the world as well. 

     So Lynn St. Amour, it is high time that you were acknowledged in this way by France, because for those who don't know, St. Amour is one of the best wines, actually, and it's also one of the most well‑known wine names in the world.  So, anyway, thank you very much.  Thank you, Chengetai, and the entire team and secretariat as well.    

     Now, Pierre, you have the floor. 

     >> PIERRE BONIS:  Thank you very much, David.  Thank you, ladies and gentlemen.  So we're reaching the end of this 13th IGF, and as we know, the session that will be opening in a few minutes, it's taking stock ceremony is going to be a very fruitful and will allow us to take stock of the progress and solutions that we've found or have not found by the stakeholders during these three days of intensive work.  So, David and I, on behalf of the entire organizing committee, believe that this 13th IGF in Paris might be a milestone in the IGF's history for several reasons. 

     First of all, there's been a very high level of participation, about 3,000 participants, and they're all very diverse, and also, there has been a very high level statement made by the U.N. and by the host country, which also is unprecedented in the history of the IGF

     And lastly, there's a piece of news that is pushing all of our stakeholders in the IGF to work harder to find agreed solutions to tackle new challenges that we're facing, which might, indeed, be quite difficult to resolve and to as well take advantage of all of the open opportunities we've been given by digital technology.  Now, we're very proud to take part of in this forum together with UNESCO and our friends at UNESCO have been very helpful.  I want to thank them for their work, for their diligent work under very difficult circumstances to host all of us here. 

     This is difficult because of us didn't want to say that directly, but yes, that is true.  We're quite sorry to the UNESCO staff.  I know that sometimes we've made your job difficult, but it's a great pleasure to have worked with you. 

     And it's very important for France to be taking this multi‑lateral approach.  It can be very effective, not just fair and equitable.  That's why we established a multi‑stakeholder organizing committee since we need to make sure that it's effective, that it works well. 

     We've shown it does, indeed, work, and so for David and myself, the time has now come to thank all the individuals and organizations involved in our forum on a voluntary basis donating their time and their energy to ensure that all of you could be here during these three days and could help work together to find solutions for tomorrow's Internet. 

     I'd like to thank ‑‑ begin by thanking our friends and partners from French Civil Society, especially the French chapter of the Internet Society in France.  Thank you very much.  Thank you. 

     A few years ago, four years ago in fact we created the French chapter of the Internet and thank you for making that a reality.  Digital renaissance is a French thinktank led by Jennifer sitting in the second row.  Thank you, Jennifer, for all of your work. 

We owe you a great debt.  David as well.  Thank you.  I don't see you here in the audience, although you're extremely tall.  Thank you in any case for all of your help, your precious help. 

     And, of course, I'd like to thank the secretary‑general of AFNIC as well as all of their team.  Thank you, Pierre, and thank you to your team, and Sophie as well.  They lead the team and the commercial team as well, thank you very much.  Not only for having personally taking part in this meeting and for being so willing to make your time and expertise available as well as that of your team. 

     That, obviously, has been extremely valuable to us.  Someone to mention as well is Ledrone ( phonetic ), and we don't hear anything, he's probably patrolling from ICAN who provided his personal assistance as well as Sebastian, a member of the board of ICAN and an activist.  Thank you, Sebastian.  He's been an activist from the very beginning.  We owe you a great deal as well. 

     I'd like to also thank Margie who helped us so much intellectually and other ways.  Stephon for taking part in the high level panel.  Thank you.  I'd like to thank Juan Pierre as well from the Salgria ( Phonetic ) event planning agency that helped so much in holding this event and has helped to host you in the best possible circumstances.  Pierre, now you have the floor to continue. 

     >> DAVID MARTINON:  On behalf of the organizing committee for the Civil Society and technical sector, we'd like to thank the governments, of course, and I would also like to begin by warmly thanking David, who has been doing excellent work for the past few months on this topic as well others and the French permanent delegation to UNESCO, who helped us a great deal. 

     This task force at the initiative, we've had within the organizing committee various agencies that have ties to the public sector, government agencies that have played a key role.  I'd like to thank them, including the national council for digital technology, the secretary‑general and all that they have done.  I'd like to thank them as well for the bags. 

     Thank you very much for all of your help.  Those are all of the individuals and groups that have helped promote the IGF for those who have not heard of it or those attending their first IGF, and it's given us great pleasure to welcome you here under the best possible circumstances.  Thank you. 

     A sincere thank you to all mentioned those that have not been mentioned.  And on behalf of all of us here at IGF, I'd like to thank all the volunteers who have done truly extraordinary work over the past four years, and we owe them a great debt as well.  I hope you had fun, and I hope that you learned some things and used yourselves, and we hope we can count on you in the future. 

     You've done such excellent logistical work, notetaking, report writing and hosting and so on.  There's so many I couldn't possibly mention all the schools and university you come from.  In any case, thank you to all of you.  You play a very important role in the IGF eco‑system, especially in France.  Thank you all. 

     ( Applause )

     >> DAVID MARTINON:  Since we have a bit more time, I'll give the floor to two prominent figures in the French technical community.  They deserve it, two leaders and two entrepreneurs who have taken part in these debates over the past three dates and embodied the ideas, solutions and values that, I think, we all have tried to promote through these discussions.  I'd like to now ask Alexandre Zapolsky, who is a founder and a member of the National Council on Digital Technology promoting Open Source software in France and Europe, and also ask Eric Leandri to come up. 

     >> ALEXANDRE ZAPOLSKY:  It's a true honor to take part informant closing ceremony of IGF 2018.  I would like to thank Ambassador Martinon as well as being invited in the event alongside our friends from Qwant.  We share the values and believe in the benefits of a free and open Internet.

     For us this Internet is the guarantee and the cornerstone of a neutral Internet and net neutrality is currently under attack by some in order to benefit economic giants.  We do not want the Internet to essentially become a tool, a network where only commercial services are provided. 

     We think that not everything can be bought, not everything can be sold.  The Internet must not simply become a market for time or data.  That's not the model our society is based on.  That's not the value that our society is based on. 

     And similarly, we do not believe that a government, no matter how powerful it might be, should be the sole guardian of the freedom of citizens.  We believe that there should be a third voice, a digital voice based on democratic values of freedom, those that we've been upholding in France since the enlightenment.  We share these values with many other countries, European countries as well as non‑European countries, and these values, of course, rest on ethics as well as respect for privacy. 

     We are facing a massive challenge that must be tackled through collective efforts, through governments and Civil Society to ensure that the spirit and the principles behind the Internet are maintained.  A free and open Internet is what allows all of us to be placed on equal footing, to coexist, to think, and to take action in cyberspace.  We must protect this common good for humanity.  That is the challenge that our generation is facing. 

     It also is the responsibility that falls upon each and every one of us.  Thinkers and doers on the web.  And together with my company, Linagora, I've promoted these values for 18 years. Everything we developed has been Open Source software, free software.  What we call free‑free, actually.  So free in terms of freedom and free in terms of price as well. 

     And like this, pride does not come from our turnover but from the positive effect that we are having.  That is, we're helping to allow everyone to have free and open access to information, especially in developing countries.  This is a source of great satisfaction for me, and we've talked for hours about digital inclusion and the issue of digital training. 

     We don't have much time.  We can't go on forever talking about this, so I'd like to say it has been a great honor and a great pleasure for me to be here with you over the past three days. 

     My dear friends, I'd like to take a vow here.  Let us ensure that our Internet is great, make Internet great again forever.  Thank you. 

     ( Applause )

     >> PIERRE BONIS:  I'd like to ask Eric Leandri, the founder of Qwant, to come up to the stage.  He's a leader in the technical community, and once again his company model upholds values valuable to all of us.  Qwant is an Internet search engine.  Eric, you have the floor. 

     >> ERIC LEANDRI:  Thank you very much for inviting us and Qwant.  I'd like to thank all of you.  I might not be as eloquent as all of you, so I'll cut straight to the point.  I'm very happy to be able to be speaking to you at the closing ceremony of the 13th IGF, and it is a great honor especially because this year IGF is taking place at UNESCO, so at one of the leading world institutions that's responsible for promoting international law and human rights. 

     Over the past three days, we've also discussed ways to protect what has made the Internet exceptional platform for exchange between people and cultures and promoting economic and social development while trying to correct some of the abuses that have occurred in the modern society.  We also are commemorating the attacks of November 13th, which, of course, lead us to reflect more deeply about the important dialogue that we should have between all of us as well as the role of France. 

     This is a responsibility that all of us share.  Now, I founded Qwant in 2011 when the U.N. Human Rights Council adopted the U.N. guiding principles for human rights and business, bringing together all of the actors of the economics theater.  We have the responsibility to uphold fundamental rights and human rights throughout everything that we do, and this is what has always steered our action here at Qwant, especially when it comes to respect for privacy and freedom of access to information, which must be protected and promoted in the same manner that we design our products.  So privacy by design. 

     We also have chosen some very beginning to break some old habits in the Internet, not to collect the data of our users, and this ensures that we respect the privacy of Internet users as well as we can ensure that we don't shut in Internet users in their own echo chambers.  We give everyone the ability to access the diversity of the world that is the potential of the Internet.  This is the world of the future.  We're not trying to impose our model, but we think this model could inspire others and should be promoted because it involves a sustainable, digital world. 

     None of us can continue forever alone without abandoning some of our values.  We cannot continue to use people's personal data to increase our ‑‑ to boost our bottom line.  We need to expect the security of people's data.  We know that we cannot play both sides of the game. 

     We cannot try to stir up controversy among Internet users by pulling their heart strings and playing on their personal data at the same time and claim that the Internet is what makes people radicalized.  How is that possible?  This is a sort of digital schizophrenia we need to overcome to transition toward a newer and greener world, and we need in order to achieve this to preserve our eco‑system, our environment, the entire planet, and we can start in the digital world. 

     We have to promote sustainable, digital development.  It's essential to do so, and in order to achieve this, we have to give users a wide range of choices ‑‑ tools that they can use and regulators have to ensure that public and private actors play their role.  This freedom of choice and regulation has been threatened by certainly monopolies or oligopolies unprecedented now. 

     The president of the republic, Emmanuel Macron, spoke to you on Monday, and as he said, with he we need to break away from dichotomy between California and China or an Internet fully controlled or completely open.  As the CEO of a private company, I think we need more regulation and rules for the game to be fair for everyone. 

We must fight against the abuse of the dominant market position, which in this way we can provide customers with a real choice in the Internet service that they choose to use. 

     It is the citizens voting for their choice of Internet service.  We need Americans, we need the trainees, we need the Russians and we also need Africa, India, South America, the rest of Asia, Europe as well.  All of the continents of the world, even the sixth. 

Therefore, we need the United Nations.  More than ever, we need to work together in order for the Internet to be a network that is protected and that above all is neutral to all and forever.  Thank you. 

     ( Applause )

     >> SECRETARIAT CHENGETAI MASANGO:  Thank you very much.  We will now start our open mic session.  If anybody from the audience wants to make an intervention.  Please line up to those two mics.  One to the left there and one to the right, and also, if you're online, please feel free to use the speaking queue.  The instructions are on the front page. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Thank you very much. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  We're going to alternate between the queues, Ambassador Martinon and I are the co‑chairs from the particular session.  We really want to hear from the community and we will take notes and it's transcribed and screened and archived.  We want everybody to rest assured that we're taking very, very careful note of any of the comments. 

     We're running timers for two minutes.  Again, that's to facilitate participation online, and again, we'll just alternate back and forth between the queue.  If you could state your name, country and the stakeholder group you represent and speak slowly for the record.  Thank you. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Thanks, everyone.  Good afternoon.  I'm from Ghana and the Internet Society Youth at IGF.  This is my first IGF and one that has been helpful.  I sat in a couple of sessions and a couple of messages were my highlights, particularly on digital inclusion and accessibility.  I sat in on a session with people with disabilities.  I realized the divide can stem from two places. 

     One, the devices, and two, accessibility to network infrastructure.  We have seen many initiatives to enhance infrastructure provisions.  There is a ( indiscernible ) for all persons with health conditions limited.  It is in this light that I suggest in addition to the multi‑stakeholder of the IGF we have a ( indiscernible ) so much as to have human engagement.  This will further enhance our quest to build an Internet of trust by constant engagement.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  I'm Steve Zellzer from San Francisco, California.  This is the third IGF conference I've attended, and it seems that every conference that I've attended, the issue of ability to the other countries to have the Internet is in question. 

We're talking about the wealthiest world, trillions of dollars spent on war, and yet we can't have electricity in Africa and other countries.  We have a real problem of resources and priority of the resources.  The resources are going towards and other things but not for the development of infrastructure in other countries that need it to develop the Internet. 

     I see that as absolutely critical, and to have to come back to another conference and hear the same thing is problematic.  The second aspect, I think, and this is not really dealt with and my concern is automation technology, robotization of the working class.  This is having a massive effect in the United States and other countries. 

     Millions of people are losing their jobs, and the gig economy threatens the future of stability for working people, not just in the underdeveloped world but the advanced countries and the United States particularly.  I think that this has to be addressed.  What is going to happen to the working class, the mass of people with these technologies, AI, their future?  It has to be ‑‑ it's a world issue, but it's also an issue for the developing countries, which has to be addressed, I think, at the next conference.  

     Lastly, in San Francisco people talk about California.  It's like dystopia right now with the wildfires taking place in California.  Climate is having a radical effect, and this has to be addressed because you cannot build this world in a vacuum, and what is going on now in California, mass fires breaking out threatens not just California but the whole world.  This is another issue that needs an international action to address the environment, and I think that's connected very much. 

     Those people in Silicon Valley and those people who think they can go on independently from what is going on globally are mistaken.  They're living in a false world. 

     I think that has to be confronted because when I go back to California, I may have to think about getting a mask for my breathing, which I thought was only in some places like Beijing or others.  Right now in California this has to be addressed as well.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  My name is ( Indiscernible ), and I'm from the Netherlands and represent the technical community here.  In the past year and past conference we heard a lot about potential changes that the IGF could go through and we're working on a program called Working on IGF.  There's a second iteration published recently.  I would like to take out a few highlights. 

     We are advising pilots on intercessional working to work different than happens now, but to have more proactive sessions with people actually work together towards some sort of an outcome or solution or best practices.  Whatever we'd like to call them. 

     Another thing that we've noticed about working this way is how hard it is to come to decisions within the traditional IGF process.  And we have been trying to find online and offline processes that can help in decision‑making, and that's something we ask them to look into. 

     The third one is MAG leadership.  What the gentleman just said there, there's so many overarching topics that may not come up through the regular bottom‑up process.  So if the MAG could be an open and transparent and bring in topics from a larger community point of view, perhaps very, very big topics could find a place in the IGF as well.  I'd like to give three examples of the past three days where things could go better.  It's not personal but just example. 

     This is my ninth IGF in ten years, so if I go to a session on child abuse on the Internet, I know after nine years how bad it is.  So if I have to go through one and a half hearing that all again without any solutions or potential ways forward coming out of the session, that's something that's being done wrong. 

     Again, MAG leadership could help to bring this topic further and assist towards solutions.  The other one is on coordination.  That is something which comes with this.  There are ten topics on cybersecurity.  Why not bring the most brilliant minds together and ask, what would be the way forward?  Instead of hearing the same story in ten sessions. 

     Finally, let me return to tangible outcomes.  If we could organize working sessions like that, proactive sessions, whatever we call them, then there will be some tangible outcomes without negotiation because we could have two solutions which are not the same, but at least gives us a direction that we can work on. 

     I hope seriously the MAG is taking this strength and cooperation report seriously, and we'll see what we can do in 2019.  Thank you very much. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Mr. Rodriguez on behalf of the delegation of Cuba.  We'd like to thank you for the opportunity to discuss and to continue to make progress on such important subjects as this one, which affects the life and development of people. 

     ITCs are increasingly decisive in the lives of citizens of the world and enhancing security and trust in the ITC's elements which along with the respect for ethics and promotion of innovation as well as the development of the Internet are fundamental.  I would like once again to thank the IGF for making debate on these subjects possible. 

     We have to work to develop a democratic and participatory governance based on the chart of the U.N., international law and multi‑lateralism with the participation of all stakeholders according to their respective roles and responsibilities. 

Telecommunications and the ICTs cannot afford to ignore individuals in their development. 

     It's up to all governments, the private sector, the universities and Civil Society to avoid the Internet being used for subversive criminal or subversive ends.  Thus, we have to fight the proliferation of cybercrime and cyber terrorism.  I, therefore, encourage the secretariat of the IGF to continue to study those subjects in the coming sessions.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  This is interpreted in six U.N. languages, so feel free to stand up and speak in your own language. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Hi, I'm a third‑term MAG member, so now I am community.  So I get to come here, however, to thank Lynn for the early appointment of new MAG members and the opportunity to get to know some of them in a dialogue with secretariat and I think with he get to know them more as their names are already in mind.  There will be a press release. 

     I wish all the best for the Civil Society new MAG members.  ( Indiscernible ) from Brazil and Maria from Digitalis.  They are great, and on the language efforts, I think we need still to remember that the IGF is a project that belongs to all of us, because some rooms, for example, just allowing the IGF lag space, the Caribbeans were feeling left out.  Take a look.  If you see translators in the booth, there will be translation.  If you don't, find a way to include people. 

     That also works for remote participation.  I have a friend who is pregnant at home trying to watch every session.  As she tries to collaborate and sometimes the speakers queue is not reminded, and there needs to be a conscious effort of all of us for that. 

     Finally, I'd like to thank all the secretariats and the newcomers for the collaboration of the knowledge which opened up, and just today a former MAG member Mike Nelson came to ask about his report.  So that was really nice to see. 

     We need that space.  We need the space to decompress as well.  I hope this keeps happening on the next IGF.  Thank you very much. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  I'm from the Internet Governance Project at Georgia Tech.  First, I saw positive things.  Thank you very much.  This was ‑‑ I thanked the French government for hosting this event.  This has been very organized and very well‑done. 

     Now I'm going to read my statement.  I think Internet Governance was kind of lost at this meeting.  Attending sessions after sessions rarely did I come across sessions that were about Internet Governance issues that this community is supposed to address and can actually address in other venues. 

     We cannot address local issues.  We can't address country‑level issues.  We're here to keep the Internet global, accessible, open and free.  I don't want to define the mandate for the Internet Governance Forum.  I just want to remind us why we're here. 

     We need to talk about what effects these values.  I suggested the multi‑stakeholder advisory group to listen to its community, to represent us in its decision‑making and how to shape the agenda and set up an agenda that is representative of us.  Let's not forget why we are here.  Youth, gender, artificial intelligence, block chains are very important issues as well as they affect Internet Governance.  That's how we can help. 

     We are here to talk about  ‑‑ to talk to government and private sectors and technical communities and others we don't get to interact with.  We are here to talk to key players, decision‑makers.  It doesn't mean that they're in the multi‑stakeholder environment, all the stakeholder groups are decision‑makers in a way. 

     So we're here to talk to them, but sometimes I just feel like we are ‑‑ I'm done.  So I'm going ‑‑ I just feel like we are not talking to the decision‑makers and people that actually make decisions, or we are not bringing the issues to the table to talk to the community.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Let me just check for a moment to see, do we have two people in the queue remotely?  It says hand down, but they're there.  Why don't we put them as a third queue as we rotate through.  Do you need time to set them up and bring them in? 

     Just a second, sir.  All those beeps are promising.  If we need a few more seconds, we can come back. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  I'm from India.  Namaste.  I'll congratulate you for the process for people that come from long away.  This is great learning. 

     I always believed this is the most exciting time in the history of the human race.  In the last three days, I'm convinced that technology is a great enabler.  So on one side there is a great opportunity with technology.  Also at the same time, I think that automation and technology proliferation creates this fear of loss of jobs. 

     While IGF, when you hold the next one in Germany, you would see that technology not only addresses proliferation of technology, productivity and profits and people are at the core.  With this I hope that if you are making notes for what's next, I think I would expect a roadmap of how to create jobs using technology with more specific details about sectoral jobs that we get. 

     In a country like India with 1.3 billion in the population, there's a prediction of 69% of jobs going to automation, I get concerned at times.  At the same time I remain optimistic with what I see happening, and I hope you address that.  Lastly, I think India should be ready to host IGF in the near future.  Thank you so much. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Let me just check with Anya in the online queue. 

     If you want, we can just ‑‑ are you ready now?  No?  Okay.  I'll wait for you to signal, just wave your hand and we'll put them in with everybody's support.  You have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Good afternoon.  I'm Florence, and I'm a militant of Internet without borders, an NGO based in Brazil.  I would like to speak what President Macron said in the opening session. 

That raised a lot of interest, a lot of debates here. 

     I think that it was a very rich and intense speech, which proposed a very complete agenda.  Therefore, we can see the attention paid by President to this subject, but as a representative of Civil Society, I have additional remarks to make.  It's important to draw our attention to the importance of regulation by the democratic powers.  As he said, the Internet cannot be a lawless territory or one controlled by unelected powers.  It's important for all of public opinion to become involved in the Internet. 

     There's a danger, so there would be a danger if the Internet was the only vehicle responsible for hate speech and radicalization.  We know that the Internet can also be an arena which other things outside of the Internet can be expressed.  For example, if we see the rise of antidemocratic forces, forces against human rights, nationalistic, this is a much more global process, which Internet is only a part of it. 

     It's the result of a whole series of economic phenomena, which have led to greater pre-indicator in our society.  Therefore, the Internet is not the only culprit or should not be singled out as the only culprit and should not be the only element subject to regulation.  If we share this democratic values, what President Macron said, it's our values that must be defended and our ideas.  I think that there's a certain very dangerous bias in that sort of discourse.  When we speak about neutrality, we need to recall that neutrality has to do with the data and not the content. 

     I think we have to keep that in mind, and finally, let me address the Paris appeal on Internet safety and trust.  I think that cooperation between states is most welcome, but it is alarming to think that regulation and the security of data can be discussed without discussing surveillance practiced by states or the need to protect anonymity and cryptography. 

     I think it's unthinkable to protect cyberspace without discussing these issues as well.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Thank you, Lynn.  I'm the outgoing MAG member but speaking in my individual capacity.  First of all, I'd like to thank the French government for being excellent hosts and also to UNESDA and the MAG chair for the privilege to serve.  I was going to say to some of the comments from the floor, and I thought I should invite the global community like those especially who want input into sessions, to input in the first MAG meeting that happens next year and be on the lookout for the link, because there's always remote participation so you can give your views right from the beginning of the year.  That's the first thing. 

     Second thing I'd like to say is since we're taking stock and moderated two sessions this week, which the first one was media content and the second one being cybersecurity.  One of the interesting things as we took stock, particularly in the content of the Internet we trust as a general theme is what we're witnessing in the world today is there are threats to that trust.  If I were to summarize the threats, it would be a fear. 

     One is the fear and the second one is the love of money and the third one being for the life of me I can't remember it, not that it doesn't matter.  So what we essentially are seeing are two extreme ends, which has been described as California versus the China model. 

     From where I sit, both do surveillance, and one does it overtly and one does it covertly.  The thing is, one of the things that I would like the global community to consider is having a common set of values, because yes, we may defer in terms of governance systems, but to look into global norms and values that we can subscribe to to make collaboration much more feasible and seamless.  With that, thank you, Chair. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  I think we now have the online participant. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  ( Indiscernible ). 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Maybe you can use the hand mic there.  For some reason they're not working. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Reads this comment, the secretary‑general renewed the 2018 ‑‑ 2019 Internet Governance for a Multistakeholder Advisory Group today.  It's 52 members advice on developing the property of the 14th Internet Governance Forum hosted by Germany in 2019.  What measures are discussed to ensure participation online, leveraging the power of Internet more effectively similar to participants on‑site in the future IGFs and several U.N. conferences?  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Online participation is extremely important to us, and I think we made fairly significant strides the Los Angeles few years, but we certainly have more to do.  I don't know if there's anything specific you'd like to add.  That was a pretty concrete comment. 

     >> DAVID MARTINON:  That's very true.  The next year's host knows the importance and making sure to have it move as smoothly as possible. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  You have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  I'm from the Network Rights Coalition in Brazil, and I'd like to read an open letter in defense of the Internet in Brazil we wrote. 

     On the occasion of the Internet Governance Forum on 2018 held on November 12th to 14th in Paris, the network rights coalition wishes to declare its position regarding the risks that Internet policies in Brazil may confront with the perspective of the government.  Brazil has made significant progress in recent years in freedom of expression, access to information and democratic management of communications through multi‑stakeholders Internet Governance which must be assured in the face of emerging threats. 

     The Internet rights and framework and the general law on protection and poles for expanding access and connectivity are references to these achievements.  They have given in Brazil a prominent position and Internet recognition regarding cooperation between the public sector, business, academia and Civil Society for many stakeholder govern, which is determined for the development of the Internet in the country, balancing the demands of different groups of society.  The civil rights framework was the fruit of this pluralist corporation establishing internationally agreed principles, guarantees, rights and duties.  It's now a reference to the world. 

     Another effort that also involved a positive articulation between the various sectors was protection of personal data.  In order to guarantee privacy and access policies providing legal security for economic development and new technologies.  The law also provides the next conditions for the construction of public policies based on the processing of data by the state in order to avoid the massive arbitrary surveillance of the public powers on citizens. 

     In this sense it's reprehensible that an international authority for the protection of personal data whose role is fundamental to the effectiveness of the new law was vetoed by the current president of the republic.  In addition, there's the risk announced by the elected government that the regulation and oversight of the exploitation of personal data in Brazil will be submitted to a military body such as the Brazilian intelligence agency, which compromises democratic freedoms. 

     The current moment also requires special attention to ensure the security of communications and individual and collective freedoms.  With the democratic participation of the various sectors, in order to enable their social control, in order to enable their social control.  Privacy is central to this and concrete measures must be taken to protect that in the public and private spheres by the adoption and promotion of secure technologies and the defense of cryptography. 

     It's essential to strengthen the institutions that worked with these policies, guaranteeing the advances mentioned above and the democratic constructions of Internet policies, especially the Internet in Brazil, the national education and research network and universities and public research centers that contribute to the development of infrastructure and the Internet in Brazil. 

     In this sense the Network Rights Coalition denounces the seriousness of the practices adopted in the electoral propaganda that involve Internet platforms which dominate the social networking market.  WhatsApp, for example, and search political interests that influence the elections scenario with serious violations of the electoral law. 

     For all these reasons, the member organizations of the northwest work rights coalition seek with this letter to mobilize international solidarity around the defense of digital rights in Brazil.  There's no room in Internet government for antidemocratic measures.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  I would like to ask everybody to do their best to keep to the time so we have time for all the comments.  Thank you. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  I'm Susanna.  I'm an executive mentor and the coordinator of IGF Turkey.  Right now I'm the lead of the working group on youth participation in Internet Governance forum 2018.  We started this group as part of the YCIG, which is the official Dynamic Coalition on youth of the IGF

     We started to identify youth interests workshops and try to bring them together with youth experts that would be in person, presents here in Paris.  We reached out to approximately ten workshops, sadly only two or three of them replied some of them replied saying you're welcome to attend from the floor, which as the IGF format, no one needs an invitation to appear on the floor. 

     Me and other members of the working group who put time and effort in this work would like to say that let's please stop organizing youth and talking about them as if they're not in the room.  When I say “youth,” don't think about young people who are like doe‑eyed and don't know things about anything.  There are impressive entrepreneurs who are young people.  There are impressive activists who are young people.  There are budding government officials who are young people. 

     So although we ‑‑ our coalition is called youth, maybe we need to step outside that definition and stop seeing youth as just youth but just members of a stakeholder group who just happened to be young. 

In that sense I hope this changes next year, and one last thing going over time just 10 or 20 seconds, there were some other workshops who are named youth IGF movement who did not communicate any organizing plans with either the YCIG or IGF recognized youth IGF forums that are publicly available on the website. 

     These siloed efforts about what youth can do or should do is frankly disappointing and I think it wastes time on all efforts because as everyone has said, together whether we do things together, it just makes more sense instead of repeating the same efforts in closed groups.  So thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Excellent points, and something we can take note of next year.  You have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  I come from the digital community of the Caribbean.  I would like to thank the organizing committee from France and the IGF for allowing me to participate for the first time as well as the international organization of the Frank

( indiscernible ) to get the information around.  I would like to share with you something that I said. 

     First of all, as a Caribbean, I wanted to attend the LAC meeting today.  The neighbor to the left, we speak French together and Creole and English, but it was in fact Spanish that he spoke.  There was ‑‑ I don't speak Spanish, so there's no way I could attend that Latin‑American meeting, so therefore, there should at least be some documentation in another language.  It's a matter of respect to the other communities. 

     Secondly, last night I wanted to see how the multi‑partner movement for cybersecurity in Africa was organized.  I attended that meeting.  The organizers were all were focused on a very North American type of model for Africa.  I think that's really unfortunate. 

     I took the floor and I said, how can you consider cybersecurity in Africa the way you do when most of the weaknesses are cultural elements?  Half of Africa speaks French.  Half the Africa has another way of thinking.  You want to force a single model on them?  At the same time, you speak about the multi‑partner approach, that's impossible.  We have to change that. 

     There has to be ‑‑ there's a sort of an angular way of thinking, but we have to work on consultation to make sure it's really a multi‑partner model.  We can't use the word "global" if only one community is the focus.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Our online participant? 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Hello.  Am I on? 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  You are, yes. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Thank you.  My name is Lawrence.  I'm speaking from the remote forum in Nigeria.  I want to thank IGF for giving us this opportunity to follow what's happening in Paris. 

     First of all, I'd like to thank the team for all the input that was put into and showing that we could have some form of connection while the meeting was on.  We were able to follow different sessions by directly connecting to the Webex from YouTube. 

     With this model or this not being available would have been completely blocked out.  I'm sure it took a lot of efforts.  I want to thank you for doing this.  I want to thank you for giving us an opportunity to be able to have this live here. 

     Today there was filtering sessions in one of the rooms.  We realized that one of the last speakers was one of the participants in that particular session, and it was difficult for us to follow what was going on because the language was not in English. 

     I know that we have translations in different rooms, but out here ( Indiscernible ) I don't have the statistics, but I'm sure there's been so many participants following remotely.  It will do us a lot of good if we standardize communication such that we won't have to strain our eyes trying to get what people are saying from the translations that we see on the screen.  Thanks again for this opportunity to join. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Thank you to everyone participating in the remote hub there as well. 

     Sir, you have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Hello, I'm from the Russian Federation taking ‑‑ representing technical community.  We're working with the minister of Internet issues, and the Internet has already grown from a specialized network of military members and students, and now it is really the epitome and nutshell of our world showing all the diversity.  Unfortunately, we cannot allow it to simply govern itself. 

     We believe that as it is in our real‑life as well, we have our national regulations, we have international legal instruments.  That's the case in virtual reality.  We should ensure that we can internationally regulate the Internet. 

     And here at the beginning of this forum, the president of France says that we have a dichotomy between the California and the China system of Internet Governance, but we need to develop a balanced model for Internet Governance.  Now, when it comes to this issue, Internet  Governance, that is, Russia believes there is a leading role by international organizations such as UNESCO as well as ITU and we think that governments have sovereign rights and responsibilities to protect data of their citizens. 

     And if we have to decide on how this data will be processed and how it should be taken into account.  We believe that we need, indeed, to have a balanced approach.  We shouldn't go towards either of the two  extremes.  At this forum about 100 countries presented and more than 3,000 participants.  All of the issues, the concerns of our societies have been expressed.  We hope that we'll be able to achieve a certain consensus, come to a certain agreement. 

     Russia supports creating a system to govern the Internet and to increase trust in the Internet.  We would like to see a transparent model of governance, international model as well, and we also believe that there should be united international mechanism for Internet Governance.  The rules would be established by and agreed upon by all the members.  Thank you to the organizers and all participants for their diverse points of view.  It's very useful.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Derrick, you have the floor. 

     >> DERRICK O’HALLORAN:  This is Derrick O'Halloran from the World Economic Forum.  I'd like to thank all of the organizers and hosts and congratulating you all on an excellent install of the Internet Governance Forum as well as all the volunteers. 

     Also recognize all the members of the community that helped to collaborate on key topics in the year such as Internet access and inclusion and Internet of Things and so on.  A couple of weeks ago I read the report, the most recent report from ICCP on climate change. 

I almost felt like everybody should stop what they're doing and work on that. 

     Upon reflection, it kind of struck me as a reminder of the importance of the work that we all do.  Our ability to achieve the goals that we set ourselves around climate change and the fact any of this sustainable development goals is massively enhanced by the Internet and related digital technologies. 

     If the problems that Internet‑related technologies create are more than the problems they solve, none of that will happen.  I introduced this, because yes, technology can help with shared goals, but we need shared goals for what we're trying to achieve with the Internet. 

     In this context and the context of a number of discussions about the evolution of the Internet Governance Forum, I'd like to express the full support from the world economic forum for the idea of up strengthening the Internet Governance Forum and highlight that as a multi‑stakeholder mission and organization ourselves, but with a network that is highly different and potentially highly complementary to the multi‑stakeholder network IGF represents.  I could encourage the community to think about how to leverage the relative strengths of both communities in 2019 and beyond.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you, Derrick.  Do we have another online participant ready?  Anya. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Hello. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Yes, we can hear you.  We can hear you.  Please go ahead. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  I'm ( Indiscernible ) with a Ph.D. in media and international government and ( indiscernible ).  I would like to add my comments here and thank IGF for this well‑organized meeting.  We all have common digital dreams. 

     New, fairer, transparent and ( Indiscernible ) and the universal in in terms of the model.  That's in the framework.  It's called international governance and digitally ( Indiscernible ) is our greatest element out there.  This is the distance and hope one day in the near future comes through.  Every one of us have a sense of the governance.  We should find other roles and responsibilities in digital age. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  I think that was the end, but I want to make sure.  I see that they've gone out of the queue.  Nigel, you have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Thank you very much, ministers, ladies and gentlemen, Madam Chair.  Two years ago at the IGF, I talked about how the young could inspire us, how the young can inspire democracy, how the young are needed for this Internet Governance paradigm of ours.  Perhaps it was an address that wasn't needed.  Perhaps it was an address out of its time, but clearly the young and the youth as we saw in whatever characteristic we applied to them from Brazil, from Turkey and Mexico and other constituents the last few days.  The youth are leading the way, whether we say the youth or stakeholder group, this is the future of the Internet. 

     There's no need for me to speak about the youth today.  Last year in Geneva where I currently live, we talked about the IGF and the future of the IGF and talked about fighting to save the IGF.  We were concerned about the future and stability of the IGF

     We were concerned that not enough stakeholders were here in the room to really make the IGF this multi‑stakeholder marvelous forum it is.  Why were we worried?  Look what we had in the last couple of days.  Thanks to Paris, thanks to France, thanks to the president and I was almost going to speak in French, but I won't.  I won't risk it.  This has been an inspirational IGF

     France has put the IGF back on the map.  Paris has inspired us, but madam chair, we have other things to worry about.  As we heard in President Macron's speech there are many issues we have to confront today.  It's not characterized into three stakeholder groups.  Perhaps there are different groups, a China constituency and California constituent see. 

     Let's not talk about that.  Let's talk about the principles and values, that we want an open Internet and a single Internet and we want a free Internet that everyone can join it in, that everyone can inspire innovation and education and passion about.  That everyone can do something to contribute to society.  That people can connect to it. 

     Madam Chair, if we want that, what better place to discuss it, what better place to discuss regulations?  Not in one stakeholder setting.  Not with one group of stakeholders, but at this marvelous IGF where so many people come together to chart the future of this asset that must all cherish.  Thank you. 

     ( Applause )

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you, Nigel.  I'm looking forward to next year's remarks as well.  You have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  I'm the director of the Global Center for Human Rights.  I'm speaking here on behalf of Civil Society organizations and MENA.  I would like to start by thanking volunteers and all the people that are involved here in France in organizing this IGF

Really, this is my third IGF

     This is my third IGF, and again, I witnessed the week and the presentation of the MENA region.  I noticed that there are about 22 workshops or sessions on digital security or cybersecurity.  It is an important topic, but not to this level of 22 sessions.  Here in MENA, we have a lot of problems.  The lack of network neutrality, accessibility, and problems related to freedom of expression on the net because of the cybercrimes law, we have some of our people in prison because of a post on Facebook or because of a tweet on Twitter. 

I believe strongly that human rights should be in the very heart of the IGF, any IGF

     I talked about this last year, and I'm talking this year about it.  I hope that the members will address this weak representation of the MENA region.  Today we got a meeting with some participants from the region, and we agreed to do something about it.  You know, there are many solutions including a subforum for MENA in the next IGF, and there are some other measures that could be taken.  But I hope this time the members will look closely at the problems that we have in the region.  Thank you so much. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Increasing participation from the MENA region as in many other regions is extremely important to the MAG.  We had a working group on constant outreach, which tends to do some of them.  We really require the community to step up and help with outreach each and every day in our activities. 

     Is there somebody online?  We'll go through the third queue.  Anya.  Do you want to come back in a minute?  Okay.  Just so we're doing sort of round the robin here. 

     Okay.  So we'll go to the next queue. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  I'm a member of the floor, and I'm going to be speaking as a member of private society.  I would just like to commend the effort made by secretariat of the IGF here today with regard to content blocking, and this is an excellent initiative that can help us help everyone and would encourage us to move towards creating direct content in other languages without having to go through translations.  This also would help us when it comes to cultural exchange in communication.  All of us, I think, should support this project. 

     I also would like to mention the important topic of multi‑lingualism and multi‑lateralism which maintains diversity and inclusion.  We can't have one government for the entire world.  We have to include everyone including all languages.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  You have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Hi, everyone.  This is Jenna.  I am youth Ambassador from that mission.Asia.  One of the organizations of the Asia‑Pacific region.  This is my first time here attending IGF, and in the past three days I have been trying my best to attend as many workshops related to youth as possible. 

     After attending the workshops and as a youth Ambassador from the Asia‑Pacific region, I realized it's essential to bring issue that Asia‑Pacific regions are facing to IGF, especially from the youth perspective because Asia‑Pacific is a diverse region that includes people from different cultural backgrounds, language and level of development. 

     I hope in the future more youth from different regions and diverse backgrounds will be invited to different workshops to advocate for the community in IGF, and we will have more interactive conversations around youth in the workshop, which the setting of the dialogue may allow us to exchange more on our experiences at a different level.  Eventually my hope it eliminate the digital divide and facilitating a higher level of inclusion in the context of rapid development and advancement of Internet.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Thank you to the last two speakers for keeping to the time as well. 

     I'm going to have to close the queue in a moment to end this part of the session on time, and I look at the folks there.  If there's something you really want to say, you should please get in the queue.  Otherwise, it will close with the individuals that are standing there now. 

     Miguel, you have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Thank you for giving me the floor.  I'd like to thank the government of France for organizing such a high‑quality IGF making it possible for us to face 2019 with a lot of hope.  I'd like to thank the secretariat and the chair for the work accomplished with the MAG

     I would like, first of all, to thank all the participants, because this multi‑stakeholder forum won't be possible without the participation of each of us who came from our different places.  So that participation for us is a very strong source of encouragement. 

My name is Miguel Kandi, a member of the MAG for Paraguay.  I forgot to introduce myself.  I'd like to add a point. 

     When we speak of the IGF this year, it's very important to point out that the subjects we discussed this year are a bridge to next year's IGF.  They also constitute a mandate for the MAG.  As to how they should pursue the formulations of the IGF, and the IGF with other United Nations' bodies, the IGF after all is unique in this U.N. system.  Therefore, its relations with other forums, including the high level panel on digital cooperation, have to take account of the mandate given them.  Always take account of the developing countries, he is essentially the small island developing states and states without a coastline.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Sir, you have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Thank you very much.  Thank you for organizing this.  It's always a wonderful opportunity to meet colleagues and friends. 

      We always think of the people who could not be here, of course.  So issues of access are very important, and they're amply discussed and I'm grateful for that.  I'm thinking about it personally because today happens to be the birthday of a dear friend of mine who is in jail in Egypt. 

     He's probably the godfather of the blogging community in Egypt, and he's unable to be here, even though he's one we celebrate.  He's one of the many people around the world part of our community and whose presence and whose voices we love to hear and applaud, but oftentimes, unfortunately, in Vietnam, in Rwanda, Egypt and Palestine, when they get in trouble, we tend to forget them. 

     So I am allowing myself to remind you all to think of all the people like him and like many others who are part of the community and who cannot join us because they live in autocratic regimes, and I urge you to remember their names and think of it as individuals and not as mere numbers.  Thank you for your time.  Thank you for organizing this and thank you for having us. 

     ( Applause )

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Anya, are we ready with the online?  Go to the next, then. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  This comes from ail Fred representing digital users of Ecuador.  We want Internet for all all the time.  A free Internet.  A safe Internet.  An open Internet and a neutral one.  To that end, these spaces must improve, they must ensure greater participation for all.  It must give room to all.  Governments continue to be the ones most absent both in the global forum as well as in the national forum and the NRIs

      Those are the ones, the governments are the ones called on to speak even more about the elephant in the room, about security, which should not run counter to the enjoyment of rights.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Sir, you have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Hi, everyone.  I'm from Azerbaijan and I'm a human rights activist.  Since 2012 Azerbaijan hosted IGF, we have joined and we believed this idea for IGF making an important role for freedoms and we believe if it's happening in Azerbaijan, it's a chance to live with Internet free in our own state.  Unfortunately, six years later, all Internet freedoms is completely downgraded.  Today I speak here on behalf of the voices that can't speak anymore for the bloggers killed in the prison like ( Indiscernible ) if I tried to show his ‑‑ he was killed in the prison in 2017 in April, and the government says he committed suicide in his cells.  In 45 days he didn't have access to a lawyer. 

     I'm speaking on another friend of mine, which is any brother and chairman of our organization for the freedom and safety.  He's exposed high level corruptions and since 2012 he attended also IGF as a civil society represents in Azerbaijan.  Today this person is jailed for different charges and he can't speak.  From 2012 until he was arrested in March 2017, five years he was like a hostage in his own state. 

     Today these people need your solidarity, and if any of you ‑‑ I saw many friends here.  If you want to join to our campaign for that, because his birthday is coming soon on the 24th of November, please as like our friends ( Indiscernible ) have joined to campaign.  We invite you to also support us. 

     Finally, I just tell you the reason why he's in prison, he was arrested because he exposed corruption and nepotism in my country and he was put in jail because of the political view.  This is the first lady of Azerbaijan, which is also the goodwill Ambassador to UNESCO.  Don't get leaders to use this kind of important informational unit to promote and legitimatize his autocratic regimes.  Thank you very much for the attention, sir. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Sir, you have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  My name is ( Indiscernible ) and the vice president of the IGF.  I have two proposals. 

     The first one concerns the number of parallel workshops.  I think we could reduce the number of parallel workshops and have workshops that last more than 90 minutes in order to allow for much more interaction to give the opportunity for the moderators of this session to take two to five minutes at the end of the session in order to summarize the main results of the session. 

     My second proposal concerns governance.  We're increasingly challenging the very word "governance," in the very concept of the word governance in the name of the IGF.  Now, those who use governance aren't all that wrong. 

     There are even problems interpreting that word in certain languages, and when we come to the IGF, the subjects we discuss refer much more to the concept of appropriation than governance.  Therefore, it's advisable to replace if the United Nations can agree the term the Internet Governance forum by the Internet Appropriation Forum.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you, COSI.  I'm going to have to close the queues now at the folks standing up in line to make sure we have time to go on to the community speakers as well.  Of course, there's always a possible to give your feedback online and catch us individually.  Let's continue going through the queue.  So Tamaya, you have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Thank you very much.  I'm a MAG member from the private sector just stepping into my second term.  Thank you for that.  And thank you for UNESCO and France was hosting the IGF in Paris this year.  We're really glad to be here. 

     I wanted to share with you three very short messages that stem from our workshop that ICC base organized yesterday on the team of artificial intelligence and the possibility for it to enhance the connectivity opportunities for those living with disabilities in the world. 

     And we came away with three messages from the workshop to see what can be done to use emerging technologies for these possibilities for these people.  The workshop said that AI needs sharing of information and raising of awareness to enrich people's lives.  We need public/private partnerships to ensure the fusion of technology, and we need holistic policy frameworks to purport cross cutting technical, social, governmental issues. 

     We had this workshop on the promise of emerging technology for people with disabilities, but if we asked just the same why do we come to the IGF?  What are we doing here and looking for from the IGF, I'm sure we would have got the same answers.  We're coming here to share information and to hear information from our counterpart.  We're here to build partnerships and we're here to find the right policy elements that can help us to reach the opportunities that the technology has for the shared development goals that we have. 

     So I'm looking forward to my next year on the MAG.  I'm looking forward to the next IGF and the many more that come afterwards.  I'm looking forward to strengthening this multi‑stakeholder model with Ms. Colleagues in the MAG and with you all participating in the IGF.  See you in Berlin, I hope. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  I'm going to go to the next mic in a moment.  Anya, I said those stands in line and I meant anybody in queue online as well.  If you want to come back in, you should.  There was an online participant.  Sir, you have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Thank you very much.  I'm from Gambia working in Civil Society.  I was in Mexico for 2016 and Gambia had an election with Internet shutout.  How can the U.N. IGF involve stakeholders like the government?  Most of the time when you come here, it's the host country's government represented at a certain level that you find here.  For instance, everyone is excited about Macron's speech and all of those.  I believe Africa could be represented more at this level with ministers, because most of the countries, the Internet‑related laws are non-existing. 

     Governments have to use laws related to that in prosecuting crimes.  For instance in our country, we have a lot of ( Indiscernible ) even though it's their own government with promises and hopes that things with I will change.  Another thing when it comes to the investment as peck of things, where I come from like Gambia, Internet data is very expensive and connectivity is an issue in many of the communities.  We're talking about an open Internet affordable Internet for all. 

     I believe we need nor investors involved, maybe to the U.N. offices in those member countries in getting some of these things available for the population.  I believe the IGF should continue to push for this, because it's the only platform like the general platform that people can come and voice these determines, even though we have regional IGF country levels.  Thank you very much. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Sir, you have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Hi, everyone.  My name is ( Indiscernible ) from Ghana, and I am from Network Africa.  I want to thank the organizers for this opportunity.  It's my first as a youth IGF

     The many sessions I attended this year, they tackled a lot of sessions that I actually wanted to listen to.  However, my focus on data inclusion and jobs for the youth still remains a problem I didn't really get to understand what everyone was talking about. 

     I believe in our quest to provide mentorship for them paving the way for the youth in the cooperation.  We can consider how they don't end up solving social issues with data technologies only about but also contributions beyond the Internet.  For most of the promising idea talks I had this year, I see a one‑sided conversation that's trying to connect people online while excluding them from normal life activities. 

     For instance, you want a wink online, but people in your community don't even know you.  How is the IGF body trying to have the ambassadors do more on the Internet.  If we continue to empower these thousands of people with these digital skills but fail to create a sustainable job that is still online, I believe our request for jobs is only still limited to the Internet.  So the IGF governing body can make plans to properly help ambassadors to create scenarios and jobs that instead of preaching digital inclusion and making jobs, we can preach how people create lasting jobs for not just the youth but people also come in after us.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Sir, you have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Thank you.  I'm Hans Kline from Georgia Tech.  I want to thank France for the hosting of this lovely event, and I want to return to my comments of the role of the state of governments in Internet Governance.  An earlier exchange of ideas in this hall, I expressed concern about the role of the State and my comments got a response that the State can solve problems of the Internet. 

     That is, I think, certainly true.  There are important issues that can be addressed like cross‑border cyber warfare and the online radicalization of youth. 

     I hasten to add that the source of many of these problems, there may be solutions offered by States but the source often lies with States and governments as well, particularly in the geopolitical international relations of states that create problems that perhaps states can later solve only after they created them.  So we find why do we have cross‑border cyber warfare today?  A major reason is because of yesterday’s international politics, the expansion of NATO, and we're seeing the start of a new Cold War.  There's a lot of talk about that. 

     An earlier strategy of conflict has generated cyber warfare and cyberattacks, which we now struggle to solve.  Perhaps the best solution to solve the problems is not to provoke them in the first place. 

     Likewise, why do we have online radicalization of youth, particularly Islam make radicalization?  Again, we find here if we look back a few years, the cause lies significantly with State action and the various wars in the Middle East that destabilize countries, Iraq, Syria, Libya, so on.  Again, online radicalization lies with actions like those in a State action. 

     So as we consider new models of Internet Governance, be weary of states that bring a certain law of Internet relations to governments.  It may be Internet stability and security is served by multi‑stakeholderism and not by States in geopolitics.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Anya, is there someone online? 

     >> AUDIENCE:  So I'm going to read a comment from the Internet Society for cybersecurity.  Thank you very much, IGF.  One more year.  I'm participating remotely, and I represent the technical community of the Internet Society cybersecurity.  We are united around a neutral‑free and safe Internet for all and secure Internet for all.  There must be a multi‑stakeholder participation in order to get to better know the subjects, these very important subjects discussed in the national and regional IGF meetings and the summit, which is the IGF international forum.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  You have the floor. 

     >> REBECCA CROSBY:  Hello.  I'm Rebecca Crosby, and I represent the faith‑based community.  So my background is that 20 years ago I worked in a sub‑Saharan developing country, and the humiliating part of that was every fortnight trudging eight hours to the city spending another eight, nine hours knocking on anybody's doors.  International banks and hotels and multi‑national companies, anyone that would let us use their communications to reach back home and get messages and important things out.  Obviously, I was in the position.  I was privileged.  I had the finance and the backing to be able to pay for that. 

     So once I even paid a year's ‑‑ a national's year's salary for three minutes of Internet access and I wasted a minute crying with the frustration.  Obviously, that developed and things changed over time, but I think the issue for mow is we need to see that equality in place.  We've heard about the policies.  We've heard about sharing information. 

     I am very grateful.  This is my first IGF, and I'm very grateful not just for the sharing of ideas but for the sharing of the fact that it needs to be a human right to have that access.  It's no good to have any access if the infrastructure is not there. 

     I heard last week of an African millionaire who flew his children to a European hospital and lived IN a mansion with lots of staff.  He was found dead face-down on the dirt on the side of his road with his mobile phone in his hand and he was looking up symptoms of a heart attack and there was no Internet connection and he died. 

     What's the point of having the resources if the infrastructure is not in place?  I'm excited about beautiful pearls, but I'll be more excited about the farming implements of that where it's accessible to all.  So thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Access is a very core concern of our activities here. 


     >> AUDIENCE:  Thank you to our French hosts, to UNESCO, to the U.N. department of economic and social affairs and to Chengetai and his team at the ‑‑ sorry.  This microphone is really low.  I'm just going to take it up.  There we go. 

     Lynn, to you for having produced a tremendous 13th annual Internet Governance Forum.  The United States supports the multi‑stakeholder approach, and as such, the United States supports the IGF.  Discussions and deliberations in multi‑stakeholder fora are enriched by different stakeholders and collaboration between different stakeholders is necessary to make the Internet work.  It is a multi‑stakeholder institutions, not multi‑lateral ones, where Internet Governance questions are best addressed.  The success of the Internet depends on finding consensus amongst state holders, not on votes by government. 

     We will meet a year from now in Berlin for the 14th IGF.  With 13 years of experience to build on, the multi‑stakeholder advisory group and the IGF community has the data to create a more relevant IGF to some stakeholder groups, namely governments. 

     We need to thread the needle between the IGF more relevant to government and an IGF that produces outputs, development of which cannot involve negotiations or trade‑offs because that's not the spirit of the IGF.  I'm sure that we can thread that needle through discussions and outreach over the coming year. 

     In particular, because we have the stability and support provided by the German government in advance.  The spirit of the IGF is collaboration between and amongst all stakeholders through transparent processes and with input provided from the bottom up by the community.  NTIA is eager to work with the IGF community towards vibrant 14th annual IGF in Berlin, Germany.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  You have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Thank you.  My name is Mira, and I'm an activist from Finland.  If a Finnish way, I'll go straight to the point.  I do believe we all want a safer Internet for ourselves and for our children, and I don't think this can be achieved through more surveillance, fear mongering and restrictions.  I believe that information and understanding are the answer. 

     Technology is advancing rapidly, and people are using it intuitively.  Education is not keeping up, and people aren't being taught how to use the Internet safely and how to protect themselves and the children from predators and how to take care of their mental health in the environment that can at times be depressing or hostile. 

I think schools all over the world should take this role of education to prevent cyber‑bullying and teach kids to use social media and the rest of the Internet responsibly and safely. 

     The Internet is a great cornucopia of information and social networks and arts and other things, and I think the theme Internet of trust means a freer, global Internet where we remember that Internet is not just made of technology but other human beings using it. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  You have the floor.  It should be fine.  Let me go to the queue over here, and if somebody could check the mic on this side of the room.  The mic.  You have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Thank you very much.  I'm from the United Kingdom government department for digital media and sport.  Hello, everybody.  First of all, thanks as the U.K. government to the French government for hosting this year's IGF

     A special thanks to David Martinon, he's not there at the moment for driving this forward with such verve and energy and style, I have to say.  It's been great.  Thanks to the steering committee as a whole and to the secretariat, Chengetai, and to the MAG for all their hard work in developing the program and setting up this event and also steering toward the intercessional work, which is a critical aspect of the IGF's work now.  It's not a single event.  It's throughout the year thanks to a lot of effort. 

     Despite shortage of resources, and I'll come onto that in a minute.  I want to say that this year we had the largest number of U.K. government policy experts at appear IGF.  It was about 20 from across our government, not only my ministry but other ministries as well.  Also, we had experts from our independent regulator here.  That reflects the criticality of the IGF program constructed this year. 

     Our policymakers felt it was important to be here to engage with stakeholders, experts from other constituencies and private sector and technical community and Civil Society and so on.  I hope very much more governments will understand the importance of being here and allow their policymakers the time to make it to the IGF and participate in discussions and hear from other stakeholders so that our policy development is enhanced and enriched. 

     U.K. government also appreciates very much the work of the MAG in implementing the recommendations of the commission of science and technology for development for improving the IGF and also the outcomes of the U.N. retreat in 2016 and also the proposals that come out of the annual stock taking. 

     That's a lot of, you know, reaction and thoughts and ideas and proposals to digest, and the MAG is now looking at that I know with a lot of energy, with working groups set up and so on.  We very much hope that work continues with focus and direction in order to make the next IGF, the 14th one in Berlin even more successful than this one.  Our deep appreciation for the German government hosting the IGF next year. 

     Very much endorse your message, Lynn, to other governments to look at the possibility of hosting the IGF.  It does need to move around through the continents.  We've been in Europe twice, and we'll be in Europe again next year. 

     We've got to move this forum at the heart of the Internet eco‑system around through the world.  So very much endorse that message, and finally, another message to governments.  That is to step forward, to step up to the plate.  That is, the U.N. trust fund that finances all of this. 

     Without those donations, this wouldn't happen.  U.K. government has been an annual contributor to the U.N. trust fund ever since the IGF started.  We're going to up our contribution, in fact.  So I hope that's welcome news.  There's not enough.  Thank you. 

     ( Applause )

     >> AUDIENCE:  But this needs more money, especially with all the extremely important intercessional work that's being undertaken.  That matrix of activity contributes to tangible outcomes.  It needs secretariat support.  I look to Anya who did a tremendous amount of work.  You need help.  Endorse your message to governments and also the private sector.  This needs money.  I hope very much the message will resonate.  We will do our best as a U.K. government to communicate that across our networks of government contacts.  I've gone over considerably.  Sorry about that.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Considerably would have been silly to cut you off in the middle of making a plea for more support and resources.  Thank you your patience.  You have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  My name is Beeta from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and I'm in change of the programs and projects in the program digital, which works in favor of digital products for the African community.  Before my first IGF, didn't know that Internet access was a right. 

     That was one of the human rights.  My country is a member of the United Nations and of UNESCO, and the African countries, Internet access is very expensive.  I would like to, therefore, call on this forum and like to appeal to this forum, to the United Nations and UNESCO and ask them to give greater consideration to the measures to be taken to counter the general exclusion from Internet that we suffer from as well as the deprival of our freedom of Internet access and expression.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  You have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  Good evening.  I would like to thank the chair, first of all.  I would like to thank Chengetai and their entire time as well as France and UNESCO.  I'm the executive secretary of the IGF in France. 

     I would like to thank you for this opportunity.  I have some recommendations and suggestions to make when it comes to NRIs.  They play a pivotal role in the IGF

     As executive secretary for Chad, we would like a sustainable, financial mechanism for the NRIs or organizing their forums or for ensuring their participation in this forum.  Since there's a U.N. trust fund, we can use that in order to allot a certain amount to that. 

     Since the IGF is carrying out a fantastic work, we'd like to thank them for ‑‑ thanks to financing, we can organize our own IGFs with the mobilization of local resources as well. 

     And also the role of youth in the IGF.  We've discussed this and the IGF Mexico.  There was a report on the role of the youth of Internet Governance.  We need young people.  Without young people we don't have tomorrow's leaders. 

     It's true that a fantastic program is being drawn up in the Mac ‑‑ MAG 2 and IGF has such could create an awareness raising program.  The end people, even if it's two or three or four people that participate, young people and the participation of the local community is also important. 

     There should be more students who have ‑‑ who are more conversant with the issues of Internet Governance.  When it comes to the workshops, when you attend the IGF workshops, you have to speak English.  Everything is in English.  As you said, language diversity is important. 

     I think that we should be able to speak in all the U.N. languages.  That's all of fundamental importance.  So I think that we have to look at the mechanisms for free catering as well as in the IGFs.  I would like to say something about changing the statues of our IGF.  I'd like to thank the secretary of the IGF that has been performing fantastic work.  There have to be more human resources to the secretary.  There has to be Nortek and financial support to it.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  You have the floor.  You've been very patient, the last few here.  We're entering the end.  You have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  I'm currently doing research at the university in U.K.  So I've heard a lot of people talking about accessibility, making sure different groups are represented.  It's important to point out that we still all belong to one community, which is the community which is lucky enough to know about the existence of the Internet Governance forum, but a community still well acquainted to concept linked to Internet Governance. 

     I've also heard a lot of criticism about the absence of concrete results, and I think that a lot of people tend to forget the fact that beyond, you know, that sense of concrete results and formal papers or whatnot, the IGF is a place to discuss different topics and also to listen.  It's a place where we exchange ideas and where people plant seeds that actually grow into thoughts and then impacts.  So I think it's really important to maybe think about broadening the outreach of the IGF, including different interest groups, which don't necessarily talk about Internet Governance on a daily basis.  Don't know about Internet Governance. 

     Also, reach out to expert groups.  I think that the inclusion of professors would be really entrusting in different talks.  The inclusion of lawyers and all these people who don't know about the existence of the IGF but could actually contribute actively through listening and actually bringing back ideas we talk about.  Bringing them back to their communities, and they could also potentially, you know, participate and comment on issues and bring about new thoughts which haven't yet been approached because with part of this very same group.  So they have it.  Thank you very much. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  Mr. Secretary‑General said philosophers and social scientists and political scientists, everybody would very much welcome a broader and deeper engagement.  Sir, you have the floor. 

     >> ETHAN SWEET:  Thank you.  I'm Ethan Sweet from the United Kingdom.  This is my first ever IGF and we were talking about this.  The IGF is a place of dialogue between all stakeholders.  And so it was particularly disappointing that yesterday due to room allocations we were physically unable to fit all stakeholders in the room.  This was particularly at two events I went to. 

     It was the ( indiscernible ) event and it was the one that was any backup, which was the event that looked to Internet Governance in general.  I can't remember the whole title.  I didn't write it down. 

     How we should really be looking at how we allocate these, perhaps asking you to preregister and what events they attend so that everyone has a seat at table.  So the other thing I want to cover about this in dialogue, since I have 53 seconds left, is participation of people in the room. 

     This seems to be really wildly varied between events.  Some events I found will open the floor up about halfway in.  Some events did not open the floor at all, which was really disappointing, I found.  So as well, we should also look at being a lot stronger on pushing back maybe on some events how much the panel speaks and how much stakeholders speak.  I didn't come here for listening to a lot talking heads.  I could have done that online.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  You're the last speaker.  We closed the queue an hour ago.  We're significantly over time.  Thank you for accommodating the rest of the speakers.  You have the floor. 

     >> AUDIENCE:  I'm from Electronic Frontiers Australia.  Firstly, by deepest gratitude to the U.N. and French government.  This is my first IGF, so forgive my somewhat guileless comments.  After many interactions, I never felt so small in a large world but I'm happy to be a small player as a global citizen.  We need to be cognizant one of the objectives we agree on is we want an open Internet, and the question that comes to mind after hearing President Macron's speech can we retain an open Internet instituting regulations and norms that have come up repeatedly over the past three days?  Is there a fine line between sovereignty, regulation, and keeping the Internet open and allowing innovation? 

     Instead of increasing regulation, we can have an opportunity to empower citizens instead.  Why should we ‑‑ why would we have to regulate against fake news when we can empower citizens to critically analyze the media instead?  The title of this Internet or this IGF ‑‑ this Internet of Trust, citizens will be required to increasingly trust governments and organizations like the U.N. due to the proposals for additional regulations. 

     Citizens need a reason to trust governments, and governments need to garner their trust.  The machinery of the governments such as SFGB needs to stop to engender that trust.  Similar comments by my colleague from Georgia Tech, a significant amount of problems we're having today have been caused by States themselves. 

     With examples of the election of  Trump in the U.S. and the rise of right‑wing involvement in government, we must persevere with multi‑stakeholder and Civil Society involvement and can't rely on government and U.N. alone.  Thank you. 

     >> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  That finishes our questions.  We will have a few closing remarks in a little while.  I want to just reassure everybody we've taken notes and, of course, it's transcribed and streamed and will be taken back into the MAG and community and working groups for further action. 

     The engagement from our side was relatively little so we can prioritize hearing from the community, but please, I really want you to understand it's well noted and we'll take them forward. 

     So I'll turn it back to Chengetai to lead us through the rest of the agenda.